Mitochondrial Dna Role In Health And Science-helmet怎么读

UnCategorized Mitochondria are found within the cells and have its own set of DNA which is known as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Mitchondrial DNA has a total of 37 genes which are all very important for the normal function of the mitochondria. Thirteen of the mtDNA genes give the instructions to produce enzymes needed for oxidative phosphorylation which is the process that utilizes simple sugar and oxygen to build adenosing triphosphate or ATP. ATP is the main source of energy of the cell. The other genes give the instructions in building the molecules known as ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNA (tRNA) which are chemically-related to DNA. These two RNA’s help in assembling the amino acids (building blocks of proteins) into needed proteins. Health: Why Mitochondrial DNA is Important The 37 genes of mtDNA are significant in the development of cells. It is believed that some genetic disorders are caused by the mutation or changes in the mtDNA genes. Here are some of the effects of changes in the mtDNA’s structure: Cancers Mitochondrial DNA can experience a series of somatic or non-inherited mutations. These mutations in the DNA may happen in a person’s existence and are normally not passed to next generations. Based on studies, somatic mutations in mtDNA are happening in some types of cancer such as colon, stomach, breast, kidney, and liver tumors. The mutations are also related to leukemia (cancer of blood tissues) and lymphoma (cancer of the cells of immune system). Researchers are trying to find out how somatic mutations lead to aggressive and uncontrollable division of cancer cells. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Most cases of this sickness are caused by the changes in mitochondrial DNA. The changes or mutations affect the ability of the cell’s mitochondria to produce energy. Such defect may cause frequent attacks of vomiting and nausea. Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy It has been confirmed that mutation of four mitochondrial genes (MT-ND1, MT-ND6, MT-ND4 and MT-ND4L occurred in people who are diagnosed with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy which lead to loss of vision. Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic acidosis, and Stroke-like Episodes (MELAS) Four mitochondrial genes (MT-ND1, MT-TL1, MT-ND5, MT-TV and MT-TH) are found to be altered or mutated in people who experience the disease. 80% of all MELAS-related cases has shown that there is a mutation in MT-TL1, a tRNA gene. Neuropathy, Ataxia, and Retinitis Pigmentosa (NARP) MT-AP6 is believed to mutate that cause NARP in people. Because of the change, the mitochondria have reduced its capacity to make ATP. Researchers are still figuring out why the disturbance makes the muscles weak, causes loss of vision and the other symptoms of NARP. Nonsyndromic deafness Two mutated mitochondrial genes (MT-TS1 and MT-RNR1) are related to the disease where hearing is lost but there are no other symptoms on other body parts. Other Disorders Mutation of mitochondrial DNA may affect the development and function of the body and its systems. mtDNA mutations are often observed on diseases such as diabetes, muscle weakness, dementia, kidney failure and a lot of other sickness. Forensic Science: Why Mitochondrial DNA is Important Forensic science is using mitochondrial DNA to identify criminals or an unnamed dead person. Through DNA fingerprints, dealing with some criminal cases have be.e more scientific and more reliable. Since there are about hundreds of mitochondria in a cell, there is enough number of genes to be used by forensic scientists as source materials. Also, since it is protected within the cell, the mtDNA does not degrade as much as the nuclear DNA. With the make up of mitochondrial DNA, its importance is significant specifically to health and forensic science. Further studying it can lead to breakthroughs on science and can provide answers on how to prevent or cure diseases. About the Author: 相关的主题文章: